文章摘要
姚颖 赖德霖.材料的国族化:1930 年代国货运动对中国国产建材工业的影响[J].建筑师,2020,6(6):63-73.
材料的国族化:1930 年代国货运动对中国国产建材工业的影响
Focus Change and Graphic Overlay: A Perspective of Understanding Transparency
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 国货运动、国产建筑材料、材料国族性、国产建筑材料展览会、中国建筑展览会
英文关键词: National Products Movement, Domestic building materials, Material nationality, Exhibition of Domestic Building Materials, Exhibition of Chinese Architecture
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姚颖 赖德霖  
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中文摘要:
      在 20世纪 30年代初的一系列政治经济动荡之中,中国民族工业的产品市场受到了严重挤压。为杜塞漏卮, 挽回利权,1933—1935年期间以上海为中心展开了“国货年”运动。在这场运动中,中国政府、社会有识之士、 建筑师、营造商、材料生产商,以及专业和大众媒体团结进取,对国货建材进行了广泛宣传。中国工程师学会通 过主办国产建筑材料展览会,联合了国货建材的主要厂商,又建立了评审和奖励机制以促进国货建材的改进和革 新;中国建筑师学会联合上海建筑协会等社会组织和社会贤达主办中国建筑展览会,充分展示国产建材所取得的 成绩并提出制定行业标准的目标。经过大力宣传,一批国货建材生产厂家很快发展并成为著名品牌。探讨在这段 特殊历史背景下的中国国产建筑材料如何得以宣传推广并得到认同和支持,有助于揭示除风格造型之外,建筑材 料与一个发展中国家建筑的民族性和现代性也有着特殊的关联。不仅如此,本研究还将在今天的遗产保护工作中 引发对于国产建材的记录、研究和保护。
英文摘要:
      As a result of political and economic crises throughout the early 1930s, the Chinese domestic industry suffered tremendous losses in its material resources and product markets. In order to reduce the national trade deficit and win back the market, the “Year of Domestic Products” movement was launched in Shanghai and its surrounding areas. During the movement, Chinese architects, engineers, and contractors worked with the government, social elites, and the media in an effort to promulgate domestic building materials. The effort culminated in two major events: the Exhibition of Domestic Building Materials, organized in 1935 by the Society of Chinese Engineers, and the Exhibition of Chinese Architecture, organized in 1936 by the Shanghai Museum in collaboration with the Society of Chinese Architects, the Shanghai Builders’ Association and other organizations and individuals. In addition to showcasing the general development of Chinese building materials, the two exhibitions helped gather key Chinese producers together, awarded high-quality domestic products, and brought attention to the issue of national standards with regard to such materials. Following the movement and its exhibitions, a large number of notable domestic building material companies and brands came into being. This paper argues that these building materials were associated with not only architectural styles, but also the nationality and modernity of a developing country. Moreover, this study will lead to the documentation, research, and protection of domestic building materials in today’s heritage conservation.
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