文章摘要
观玻璃
Looking into Glass
投稿时间:2024-04-04  修订日期:2024-04-04
DOI:
中文关键词: 玻璃、透明性、战后现代主义、欧洲现代主义、现代性事物
英文关键词: Glass, Transparency, Postwar-modernism, European Modernism, Things of Modernity
基金项目:
作者单位邮编
洛朗·斯塔尔德* 苏黎世联邦理工学院建筑历史与理论研究所 8093
王雨林 同济大学建筑与城市规划学院、苏黎世联邦理工学院建筑历史与理论研究所 
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中文摘要:
      本文结合艺术、建筑理论、技术和科学话语,探讨玻璃的物质性,以阐明二十世纪欧洲现代建筑的实践转变。有别于柯林·罗和斯拉茨基在玻璃和透明性之间建立的隐喻联系,亦不同于詹克斯将玻璃和不透明相关联的后现代解答,本文提出建筑不应被削减为感知。作者首先回溯十九世纪欧洲建筑学“透明”一词的起源和发展,继而展现二十世纪早期现代建筑中玻璃多种多样的非透明再现形式,呈现这些探索对现代主义运动的贡献和挑战。科恩、舒尔策、麦格拉思等建筑师的玻璃研究多关注材料“性能”,可见在1930年代就已逐渐形成了认识材料的科学属性及其建筑潜力的意识。莫霍利-纳吉等人的建筑理论和科学研究关注透明材料的物质性和科学性,现代建筑的诠释逐渐从构件转向性能乃至“物理功能”,促使玻璃从光的媒介转变为凝视的媒介,进而转变为精密环境设计的媒介。本文最后介绍物理学家贝尔纳基于对科学技术的激进未来畅想,借此探讨人、建筑和环境的关系。
英文摘要:
      Using glass, this paper explores its materiality in relation to discourses in art, architectural theory, technology, and science, to illustrate the shifting practices in European modern architecture throughout the 20th century. Departing from Colin Rowe''s and Robert Slutzky’s metaphorical association of glass with transparency, and from Charles Jencks''s postmodern answer, linking glass to opacity, this paper argues that glass cannot be reduced to its perception. The author traces the origins and development of the term “transparency” in 19th century European architecture, to then present the diverse non-transparent representations of glass in early 20th century modern architecture as both a contribution to, and a challenge for the modernist movement. The investigations into glass of architects, such as Arthur Korn, Konrad Werner Schulze and Raymond McGrath, focusing on the “performance” of the material, illustrate already in the 1930s a growing awareness for the scientific properties of the material and its potential for architecture. The architectural theories and scientific research from László Moholy-Nagy and others focused on the materiality and scientificity of transparent materials, following with a gradual shifting of modern architectural interpretations from components to their performances and “physical functions”, which led to the transformation of glass from a medium of light to a medium of the gaze, and then into a medium of precise environmental design. The paper finally concludes by introducing a speculative vision of the future based on science and technology as described by physicist John Desmond Bernal to discuss the relationship between humans, architecture and the environment.
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