文章摘要
夏珩 林如华.浅析我国早期砌块拱壳技术体系中的 “儒—匠”关系四例[J].建筑师,2022,(4):12-18.
浅析我国早期砌块拱壳技术体系中的 “儒—匠”关系四例
Studying Four Cases of the“Confucian-Craftsman”Relationship inthe Early Modern Chinese Masonry Shell System
  
DOI:10.12285/jzs.20220805003
中文关键词: 我国早期现代、 砖拱壳技术体系、“儒—匠”关系、“三结合”、技术创新、节约“三材”
英文关键词: Early Modern China, Masonry arch and shell technology, The “Confucian-Craftsman” Relationship, “Three-in-one” approach, Technology innovation, Saving the “Three Materials”
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作者单位
夏珩 林如华  
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中文摘要:
      在中华人民共和国成立后的前30 年,各地进行多样、适宜的砌体拱壳技术体系的试验与推广,以应对节约 “三材”“勤俭建国”等严苛社会条件的诉求。在向建筑学本体回归的技术创新过程中,“建造—设计”主体间的关系 至少呈现出4 种不同类型:工程师结构计算主导,建造从属的方式;民间建造先行,工程计算进行理论提升的方式; 建筑工程系师生统筹设计、结构计算、施工规划、建造等“儒—匠”合一的方式;工程设计、材料生产和施工建造 “三结合”的方式。这些“建造—设计”主体间的紧密关系具有打通专业隔阂、链接上下游产业环节的作用,为当下的 建筑创新、设计教育提供了积极的借鉴意义。
英文摘要:
      In the first 30 years after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, various and suitable masonry arch and shell technology systems were tested and promoted in provinces to meet the demand for strict social conditions such as saving the “Three Materials” and “Building the Country Through Diligence and Thrift”. In the process of technological innovation of masonry arches and shells returning to the architecture core, the relationship between the main body of “build-design” shows at least four different types: completely guided by structural engineers based on Western thin-shell theories, physical construction used to verify the calculation parameters; 1∶1 Mockups firstly constructed by folk craftsmen with local method, then optimized by engineers and upgraded to a structural system that can be promoted; designed, structurally calculated, construction coordinated, and built all by Architectural Engineering Department teachers and students; the so-called “three-in-one” approach to join the design, material production and management together. These interactive relationships help to break up professional barriers and link upstream and downstream industrial links. This provides a positive reference for the current architectural design innovation and education.
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